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“计算科学之父”图灵如何用数学破译自然界【亚博网页版界面登陆】

亚博网页版界面登陆 科技 2021年01月28日
本文摘要:Many have heard of Alan Turing,themathematicianandlogicianwhoinventedmoderncomputingin 1935.theyknowturing,thecryptologistwhocracrace helpedwinworldwarii.andtheyrememberturingasamartyrforgayrightswho是afterbeingprosecutedandsentencedtochemi

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Many have heard of Alan Turing,themathematicianandlogicianwhoinventedmoderncomputingin 1935.theyknowturing,thecryptologistwhocracrace helpedwinworldwarii.andtheyrememberturingasamartyrforgayrightswho是afterbeingprosecutedandsentencedtochemicalcastration,comm 他们告诉图灵他是密码学家,破译了纳粹Enigma密码,帮助同盟国赢得第二次世界大战。他们还说图灵是同性恋权利的殉道者,被起诉被宣布化学阉割后,1954年不吃涂氰化物的苹果而自杀了。But few have heard of Turing是thenaturalistwhoexplainedpatternsinnaturewithmath.nearlyhalfacenturyafterpublishinghisfinalpaperin 10 chemistsandbiologicalmathematicianscametoappreciatethepowerofhislateworktoexplainproblemstheyweresolving, likehowzebrafishgettheirstripesorcheetahsgetspots.andevennow, scientistsarefindingnewinsightsfromturing’s legacy .在他1952年发表最后一篇论文几乎半个世纪以来,化学家和生物数学家们认为,他后期的工作是他们解决问题的问题,比如斑马鱼至今,科学家们仍在从图灵的遗产中寻找新的洞察。

Most recently,inapaperpublishedthursdayinscience, chemicalengineersinchinausedpatterngenerationdescribedbyturingtoexplainamoreefficientprocessforwaterdesalination, whichisincreasinglybeingusedtoprovidefreshwaterfordrinkingandirrigationinaridplaces .最近于星期四在《科学》杂志(Science )上发表。海水淡化作为更多干旱地区的饮用水和灌溉用水供给。

turing’s 1952 paperdidnotexplicitlyaddressthefilteringofsaltwaterthroughmembranestoproducefreshwater.instead, heusedchemistrytoexplainhowundifferentiatedballsofcellsgeneratedforminorganisms .图灵1952年的论文没有特别提及,应用薄膜过滤器盐水制作淡水他解释了化学上无显着差异的细胞球是如何使生物体产生形状的。it’sunclearwhythisinterestedtheearlycomputerscientist, butturinghadtoldafriendthathewantedtodefeatargumentfromdesign是theideathatforcomplexpatternstoexistinnature,something superna akeennaturalobserversincechildhood是, turingnoticedthatmanyplantscontainedcluesthatmathbeinvolved.someplanttraitsemergedasfibonaccinumbers.thesewereparres es 3360 es etwoprecedingnumbers.daisies,for example,had 34,55or 89 Petals .图灵从小就是敏感的自然观察者,有些植物的性状上不存在斐波那契数列。这个数列的一个特征是每个数字等于前面两个数字之和。

例如,雏菊有34、55或89个花瓣。“hecertainlywasnomilitantatheist,”said Jonathan Swinton表示, acomputationalbiologistandvisitingprofessorattheuniversityofordwhohasresearchedturing’slaterworkandlife .“hejusthe tics was andyoucoulduseittoexplainlotsandlotsofthings-andyoushouldtry .”“当然他不是保守的无神论者”牛津大学(uniii )他研究了图灵后期的工作和生活“他只是指出数学很强,可以用它来解释很多事情。——请试试。

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”And try,Turing did .图灵确实试过。“hecameupwithamathematicalrepresentationthatallowsformtoemergefromblankness,”said Dr. Swinton .“他明确了数学表达,从in turing’s Mon twochemicalshecalledmorphogensinteractedonablankarena .“suppose you’vegottwoofthese。andonewillmaketheskinofananimalgoblackandtheskinoftheanimalgowhite。

在“explained dr.swinton .“ifyoujustmixthesethingsinanarena,what you get is a gray animal .”图灵的模型中,两种由他称为成型元素(mmi )。“假设有两种形式元素:不使动物皮肤变红和不使动物皮肤变黑。”斯温顿博士。“如果把这些混合起来,动物的皮肤就不会变成灰色。

》butifsomethingcausedonechemicaltodiffuse,or spread,faster than the other,theneachchemicalcouldcouldconcentrateinevenlyspacedlocalize togetherformingblackandwhitespotsorstripes .但是,如果在短时间内比其他化学物质扩散的话,thisisknownasa“turing instability,”and, thechineseresearcherswhopublishedthenewpaperdeterminedthatitcouldexplainthe公开发表这篇新论文的中国研究者估计可以解释盐过滤膜中经常出现的结构bycreatingthree-dimensionalturingpatternslikebubblesandtubesinmembranes, theresearchersincreasedtheirpermeability是creatingfiltersthatcouldbetterseparatesaltfromwaterthantraditionalones .在膜上形成气泡或配管等这种过滤器需要比传统过滤器更好地分离盐和水。“wecanuseonemembranetofinishtheworkoftwoorthree,”said Zhe Tan是agraduatestudentatzheijanguniversityinchinandfirstauthoroftheps whichmeanslessenergyandlowercostifusedforlarge-scaledesalinationoperationsinthefuture .“我们可以用一张胶卷完成2到3张胶卷的工作。” 这意味着著将来用于大规模脱盐作业时,消耗的能源和成本会减少。


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